sábado, 9 de septiembre de 2017

Entry 7 From paragraph to essay

In order to write a well written paragraph, four types of sentences, or at least a combination of them, are requierd. These sentences are: The first type is called Introducers which stablish the topic being developed. Secondly, Developers which contain examples and details being discussed and they also support the point of the paragraph. Thirdly Modulators which show transitions amons sentences or ideaswithin the paragraph.  The last but not least sentence is called Terminators which conclude the idea of the sentence.
Each sentence contains an clear idea which is linked to the main topic of the paragraph as well as aech paragraph is linked to the main topic of the essay. This topic is introducted by an introductory paragraph. Whithin,  the thesis statement is placed at the end of it providing a transition (as a transitional sentence) between the introductory paragraph and the one which precedes.
The transitional sentences can be words, phrases or a sentences linked to the ideas developed later in the rest of the text.
Talking about a listing paragraph , transitional sentences make the reader advance smoothly into the different ideas of the paragraph. Examples can also be presented in order to support the idea or give solid evidence of what is said,

As regards to essays, the same structure of a paragraph is applied, being aware of the type of essay to write. There are two main aspects to discuss gere: To begin with, the comparison essay, which contains similar aspects of two subjects. However, the second type of essay, which is contrastive essay, contains differences aspects of the subjects. In both types of essays the paragraphs are divided in three categories. Firstly introductory paragraph, which stablish the main topic. Secondly, the body which support the viwpoint being discussed and the body can be divided in two or tthree paragraphs. And finally, the conclusion which states the focus of the essay.

Exaples to analyse;

a) "In today's modern world, computers are needed everyday. Around the world, children use computers from the time they are little. It's true that children should have fun when they are young; however, in my opinion, a child who knows how to use the computer will be more successful in the future. My reasons for this view are personal, academic and professional."

This paragraph is about how computers are seen from different perpectives; personal, academic and professional views. It is an introductory paragraph which contains a very smooth transition among the sentences and the thesis statement is well stablished. We can see how the writer makes the three points he or she will take into account  in order to write the whole essay, considering the stages of life. The use of the connector ( however) 

b) "On the other hand, various professions contribute to making our world run smoothly. Doctors put in at least ten years of grueling study and internship; their work saves lives. Teachers educate and inspire young people to be responsible citizens: their efforts produce the citizens of tomorrow. Social workers rescue individuals facing physical, mental and psychological challenges: their intervention creates safer societies." 

This paragraph is developed by examples which support the topic sentence clearly. The examples explain how they affect to the contribution of our world with easy words and simple sentences, which make the paragraph run smoothly from one example to another. The expression "On the other hand" states the second part of an argument of the essay as this phrase is used for constrasting two ideas, subjects or topics, I assume , this paragraph belongs to the body of an essay. 

c) "In conclusion, whether to take a year-long break or not is an individual decision. Each young person should consider his or her motivations carefully and decide on what’s most desirable. Time is a precious resource and people of all ages, including young people, should treat it with respect."

This paragraph is the conclusion of an essay. It seems to be about young teenagers taking a year long break. It is a hard decision which adolescents should think and decide on their own.  Recognizaing the type of paragraph seems to be easy due to the beginning of it, the expresion "in conclusion", gives the reader the feeling of ending, that the text is reaching its end. 

d) "First, the family plays the central role by providing the backdrop in a young person's life. A positive family environment provides love, support and encouragement for the student to do his/her best. Simultaneously, the family aims to instill discipline and ambition in the child. The influence and expectations of family members remain paramount at this time and throughout a young person's life.
Second, as a child turns into a teenager, the peer group begins to play an increasingly important role in his/her life. The friendships one develops at this highly sensitive stage can affect ones attitude to studies, authority, society and the world. In the right company, young people can get involved in positive activities that support their academic performance. With the wrong crowd, teenagers could develop a host of unhealthy and dangerous habits which impact not only their grades but all aspects of their lives.
Lastly, the school itself is a deciding factor in the student's academic success. A variety of elements determine how the students feel about school: the teachers, the staff, the facilities, the subjects, the text books, the method of instruction and more. All of these have a significant impact on the young person's motivation to excel."

Being aware of the task, this is not a paragraph, but this fragment of writing is the body of an academic writing which is developed by listing.  Each paragraph begins with an ordinal number, (first, sedond and Lastly) supporting the thesis statement and the main topic of the essay. The three paragraphs contain a topic sentences at the beginning and help the reason to focus on eas idea en an easy way as well as the selection of words. 

sábado, 2 de septiembre de 2017

Entry 6 Well written paragraph

Bulleted list: Parts of a paragraph
*Structure or formular of a piece of writing in American English tyle.
*Topic sentence.
*The body :  solid arguments  considering the importance and the choronological order of the events. *Closing sentences: re-stating the plot of the paragraph and the conclusion the topic sentence.

Examples of Topic Sentences taking into consideration the website of University of Toeonto;
The first is the wear-and-tear hypothesis that suggests the body eventually succumbs to the environmental insults of life. The second is the notion that we have an internal clock which is genetically programmed to run down. Supporters of the wear-and-tear theory maintain that the very practice of breathing causes us to age because inhaled oxygen produces toxic by-products. Advocates of the internal clock theory believe that individual cells are told to stop dividing and thus eventually to die by, for example, hormones produced by the brain or by their own genes. (from Debra Blank, "The Eternal Quest" [edited]).

This paragraph is a straightforward description of two possibilities, neither of which is preferred over the other. In this case, it would be wrong to mention only one of the possibilities (the "internal time clock") in the topic sentence, or to treat it as a philosophical discussion of death itself ("we all must die..."). As for the biology professor, He or she might very well have given an interesting lecture, but that has nothing to do with the content of the paragraph.

In Montreal, a flashing red traffic light instructs drivers to careen even more wildly through intersections heavily populated with pedestrians and oncoming vehicles. In startling contrast, an amber light in Calgary warns drivers to scream to a halt on the off chance that there might be a pedestrian within 500 meters who might consider crossing at some unspecified time within the current day. In my home town in New Brunswick, finally, traffic lights (along with painted lines and posted speed limits) do not apply to tractors, all terrain vehicles, or pickup trucks, which together account for most vehicles on the road. In fact, were any observant Canadian dropped from an alien space vessel at an unspecified intersection anywhere in this vast land, he or she could almost certainly orient him-or-herself according to the surrounding traffic patterns.

The answer Although the interpretation of traffic signals may seem highly standardized, close observation reveals regional variations across this country, distinguishing the East Coast from Central Canada and the West as surely as dominant dialects or political inclinations. is correct.
It is not enough simply to list all of the arguments in the paragraph ("People in Montreal drive faster..."), or to pick only one point to hilight ("People in Calgary are careful of pedestrians"). Instead, the topic sentence should highlight the interpretative nature of driving habits and their regional variations. Since the paragraph stresses the differences among drivers in different parts of the country, it would be entirely wrong simply to state in the topic sentence that "Canadians do not follow traffic signals properly."

The strictest military discipline imaginable is still looser than that prevailing in the average assembly-line. The soldier, at worst, is still able to exercise the highest conceivable functions of freedom -- that is, he or she is permitted to steal and to kill. No discipline prevailing in peace gives him or her anything remotely resembling this. The soldier is, in war, in the position of a free adult; in peace he or she is almost always in the position of a child. In war all things are excused by success, even violations of discipline. In peace, speaking generally, success is inconceivable except as a function of discipline. (from H.L. Mencken, "Reflections on War" [edited]).

The answer We commonly look on the discipline of war as vastly more rigid than any discipline necessary in time of peace, but this is an error. is correct.
The topic sentence must emphasise the comparative nature of the paragraph. Mencken does argue that soldiers need discipline, but this is not all he argues in this paragraph. Likewise, while soldiers may well serve an important function in wartime, and while they may well be able to compete well in peacetime, neither of these points is discussed in the paragraph.

miércoles, 23 de agosto de 2017

Nº4 Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis

Nº5 Writing

<iframe src="//www.slideshare.net/slideshow/embed_code/key/HBq6UlqH8Bzsa2" width="595" height="485" frameborder="0" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" scrolling="no" style="border:1px solid #CCC; border-width:1px; margin-bottom:5px; max-width: 100%;" allowfullscreen> </iframe> <div style="margin-bottom:5px"> <strong> <a href="//www.slideshare.net/ALEXCARSON10/writing-skill-by-marianne-celcemuricia-77543712" title="Writing Skill by Marianne Celce-Muricia" target="_blank">Writing Skill by Marianne Celce-Muricia</a> </strong> from <strong><a target="_blank" href="https://www.slideshare.net/ALEXCARSON10">ALEX CARSON</a></strong> </div>

domingo, 7 de mayo de 2017

N°3 Speech acts

J. Austen develops the idea of "Speech Acts"and he devides utterances into two distinguished and separate parts of speech: constatives and performatives. He easily defines constatives as sentences which describe sth is true or false. However, performatives us defined as sentences which denote in action.However, when we talk about speech acts, we refer to thoses words which demand actions and those which are actions, for example; promising,apologising,ect. In the case of performatives, we need to be aware of felicity conditions, which implies an utterances pronounced by the correct person and in the correct place. To put it into other words, certain verbs need to be said under certain conditions. Felicity conditions can be the rules that an performative can be inactive.
Performatives have some characteristics to lead into action:

*proper autority
* ready to be executed

N°2 University of Toronto; Academic Writing